Captive Portal Overview

I originally authored this on Aug 16, 2016 at http://unix.stackexchange.com. Considering my tutorial did not include an overview, I thought I would re-post it on my blog.


To make a captive portal appear, you need to stop all internet traffic and provide a 302 redirectto the client’s browser. To do this, you need to have a firewall (like iptables) redirect all traffic to a webserver (like nginxapache, etc) where the webserver responds with a 302 redirect to the url of your login page.

I have written a lengthy article on how to do this with a Raspberry Pi. It basically boils down to the iptables block/redirect to webserver:

iptables -t nat -A wlan0_Unknown -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to-destination 192.168.24.1

and then the webserver (nginx) redirecting to the login page:

# For iOS
if ($http_user_agent ~* (CaptiveNetworkSupport) ) {
    return 302 http://hotspot.localnet/hotspot.html;
}

# For others
location / {
    return 302 http://hotspot.localnet/;
}

iOS has to be difficult in that it needs the WISP settings. hotspot.html contents are as follows:

<!--
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<WISPAccessGatewayParam xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://www.wballiance.net/wispr_2_0.xsd">
<Redirect>
<MessageType>100</MessageType>
<ResponseCode>0</ResponseCode>
<VersionHigh>2.0</VersionHigh>
<VersionLow>1.0</VersionLow>
<AccessProcedure>1.0</AccessProcedure>
<AccessLocation>Andrew Wippler is awesome</AccessLocation>
<LocationName>MyOpenAP</LocationName>
<LoginURL>http://hotspot.localnet/</LoginURL>
</Redirect>
</WISPAccessGatewayParam>
-->

    Lee Alder

    Question: I am a noob on the Raspberry pi and I’m trying to follow your instructions. But I seam to only find epic fail.
    in the area “nginx
    Now we need to set up nginx to send a magic packet that prompts the user for action (i.e MyOpenAP requires you to sign in). To do that, we will run the following commands:”
    how do I do that? Type it from the keyboard or put it into a .sh file and run it.
    Thanks in Advance.
    Lee Alder



      awippler

      You would run them from a terminal prompt



        Lee Alder

        Do I do copy & paste?



        lee alder

        would that be copy & paste?


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